800 s


Emperor Charles the Great, engraving Otto Thieme, edition, Gottstein.

1000 s

Drawing and engraving Karl F. Mohr. Edition Retter.






Upper row - second from the left Louis I, Duke of Bavaria (1173–1231). Lower row - first and second from the left Danish knights of Scanian bishop Jens Dros of Lund.

Upper row - Two sarascen emirs; Sultan Saladin (1137-1193); Sultan Ilgazi of Mardin. Lower row - second to the left Gottfried of Bouillon (1060-1100); King Richard I 'The Lionheart' (1157-1199); Berengaria von Navarra (1165-1230), Rihards wife and queen of England; Peter of Amiens (1050-1115).

Upper row - King Richard's standard bearer, King Richard I 'The Lionheart'; Bohemond of Taranto (1058-1111); Lower row - Frederick I 'Frederick Barbarossa' (1122-1190); Grand Master of the Teutonic Order; King Richard I 'The Lionheart'

Bohemond of Taranto, engraving Ludwig Frank, edition Müller.


Close up of Richard the Lionheart.


Lower row - from the left Otto I (912 - 973) German king and Holy Roman Emperor; John the Blind (Luxembourgish; Jang de BlannenGerman: Johann der Blinde von Luxemburg; Czech: Jan Lucemburský) (10 August 1296 – 26 August 1346) was the Count of Luxembourg from 1309 and King of Bohemia from 1310 and titular King of Poland. He was the eldest son of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII and his wife Margaret of Brabant. He is well known for having died while fighting in the Battle of Crécy at age 50, after having been blind for a decade. Before he died in battle, he was reported to have said: "Let it never be the case that a Bohemian king runs from a fight!"; Charles II of Alençon (1297-1346).

From the series Nibelungen. Engraving F.K. Mohr, edition G. Rackow.

English regents - from the left, Edward I (1272-1307); Stephan (1135-1154); Matilda (1141); Henry II (1154-1189); Henry III (1216-1272); Richard I (1189-1199).



Upper row - Second from the left Charles II (1422-1461); third from the left Louis XI; second row middle figure - Charles II. Bottom rows, all three Jeanne d'Arc/Joan of Arc.

Middle figure - Jeanne d'Arc. Drawing Louis Bombled, egraving Ludwig Frank, edition Heinrichsen.

Upper row - The duke of Bavaria; Charles the Bold/Karl der Kühne; Phillip IV of France.

Second from the left - Jean de Crequy (1395-1475); Guillaume de Vienne/ William of Vienna (1361-1437);

Drawings Ludwig Madlener, Louis Bombled, Fritz Krischen, engravings Ludwig Frank, Sixtus Maier, Franz K. Mohr, Graf, Otto Thieme, editions Lelong, Ochel, Gottstein, Heinrichsen, Retter, Müller, Wimor, Wentzel, Armond.